Baycox® Toltrazuril is the result of extensive research efforts to help treat EPM (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis), which causes a multitude of effects that manifest in a variety of symptoms. Our solution represents a new standard in coccidiosis control, belonging to the chemical group of symmetric triazinons not related to any other anticoccidial drug currently in use in veterinary medicine. Our 5% solution affects all intracellular structures of the one-celled protozoan parasite called Sarcocystis neurona. Toltrazuril is highly effective and has demonstrated the following benefits:
-prevents and reduces the severity of lesions
-stops oocyst shedding
-improves growth rate
-improves feed conversion
HOW IT WORKS:
Our Toltrazuril Baycox® 5% solution is suitable for both therapy and metaphylaxis, and acts as an effective tool for controlling coccidia-related problems. By damaging the intracellular developmental stages of Coccidia, toltraturazil affects schizonts, microgametes, and macrogametes without damaging the cell tissue of the host animal. Findings from studies suggest the drug interferes with the division of the nucleus and the activity of mitochondria, which is responsible for respiratory metabolism in the parasite. In the magrometes, toltrazuril damages wall-forming bodies, and in all intracellular developmental stages, severe vacuolisation occurs due to inflation of the endoplasmatic reticulum. Toltrazuril does not interfere with immune development, and usually does not require follow-up treatment, even in advanced infections (after three to five days). However, the efficacy of the drug is independent from the severity of the infection.
Toltrazuril is quite lipid soluble so absorption and distribution into tissue is very good. Toltrazuril Baycox® 5% has a unique mode of action and there is no reason to be concerned with an adverse reaction or a drug-drug reaction. As Toltrazuril only has activity against protozoa, there is no effect on upset of intestinal flora and the formulation is very well tolerated. To be soluble in water, the product undiluted is very alkaline, pH 11.4. Direct oral dosing of the undiluted product is very irritating to mucous membranes and will cause immediate vomiting. Make sure you are using the correct formulation.
Toltrazuril is a relatively new treatment that may actually cure coccidiosis, instead of just suppressing it. The drug is readily available in Canada and Australia, but not the US. While other drugs have been used to control Coccidia infections, they do not provide a cure, and the animal may continue to be infectious to other animals.
FOR USE WITH CATS:
DO NOT use the 2.5% solution sold as a pigeon remedy, as it can be caustic to the mucus membranes of cats.
DO NOT use this drug in pregnant cats as the teratogenic effects of this drug has not been adequately researched as of now.
The dose of Toltrazuril 5% suspension is 20 mg/kg, or 10 mg/0.2 mL per pound. In a published study, a single dose of Toltrazuril cured coccidiosis in puppies, as long as adequate environmental cleanup is performed. However, it is recommended to repeat the treatment weekly for a couple of weeks. It is CRITICAL to clean the environment to rid it of coccidia. This drug is most effective when it is used at the age of 4-6 weeks to PREVENT coccidia infection in kittens.
Toltrazuril is designed to dose cats before the presence of clinical signs. Most catteries have issues with coccidiosis in young kittens around 5 weeks of age, meaning treatment should be given around day 28 so as to kill the early stages of the protozoa. The treatment will not cause sloughing of the intestinal epithelial cells. The coccidiosis does a fine job of that on its own. Intestinal cells remain intact and functional while the single cell stages of the cocci are dead, as evidenced by staining techniques in studies. As Toltrazuril Baycox® is cidal, kittens do not have to depend on their immune systems to eliminate the cocci as they would with a drug that only treats symptoms.
It is very difficult to judge when a kitten is infected, which is why administration prior to clinical symptoms is recommended. The intent is to kill the protozoa before there is damage to the villi to clear the infection. In this way, the kittens will not develop the normal clinical signs of diarrhea. If you can identify oocysts in fecal exam, the protozoa has completed its reproductive cycle. The drug can not penetrate the oocyst wall to kill this stage, but treatment at the first signs of a clinical case will still help to limit the severity and duration of the infection as the Toltrazuril will kill single cell stages that have not reproduced sexually yet.
The below information was taken from a journal abstract posted to the Fanciershealth Yahoogroups list in 2001: Toltrazuril treatment of cystoisosporosis in dogs under experimental and field conditions. A Daugschies, HC Mundt, V Letkova Parasitology Research, 2000, Vol 86, Iss 10, pp 797-799
“Coccidia of the genus Cystoisospora cause mild to severe diarrhoea in dogs. The effects of toltrazuril treatment on cystoisosporosis were studied under experimental and field conditions. Twenty-four puppies were experimentally infected each with 4 x 10(4) oocysts of the Cystoisospora ohioensis group. Three groups of six puppies were treated 3 dpi with 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg body weight of toltrazuril suspension (5%); the remaining six puppies served as non-treated controls. Toltrazuril suspension or microgranulate were given once in a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight, respectively, to naturally infected puppies in conventional dog breeding facilities, depending on the coproscopical evidence of infection. Oocyst excretion and clinical data were recorded.
Under experimental conditions, the non-treated puppies excreted oocysts beginning at 6 dpi and suffered from catarrhalic to haemorrhagic diarrhoea. On 12 dpi, four of six non-treated puppies died. Irrespective of the dose, toltrazuril treatment totally suppressed oocyst excretion and no diarrhoea or other signs of disease were observed in the treated groups. Natural Cystoisospora infections were regularly found during the 3rd or 4th week of age in dog breeding facilities although not always associated with diarrhoea. A single oral application of toltrazuril abrogated oocyst shedding and the treated puppies remained generally coproscopically negative during the following 2-4 weeks.
Cystoisospora is pathogenic for puppies and can induce severe disease. Natural infections are common in conventional dog breeding facilities. Toltrazuril treatment is suitable for controlling cystoisosporosis under experimental and field conditions. A single oral treatment for puppies in the 3rd/4th week of age is recommended.”
Dr. Bruce Kilmer at Bayer Canada:
“The drug active is toltrazuril, which has a cidal mode of action on protozoan. The toltrazuril will kill all single cell stages of coccidiosis. Once an animal has diarrhea and you can find oocysts on fecals, the drug can not penetrate the oocysts so technically it is too late to treat. In the actual clinical cases, treatment is still worthwhile to shorten the length and severity of the diarrhea as there is still development of the life cycle in the small intestine that will be controlled.”